ELL Teacher Tool Kit

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Table of Contents

Cummins Theory (Pros & Cons)

Some would say that the idea of BICS and CALP helped move us from a language acquisition instructional system where linguistic fluency was the focus, which Cummins felt did little to help ELLs, ESL students to reach their full academic level of proficiency

  • One criticism of CALP is that it attributes academic failure of ELL/ESL students to low cognitive academic language proficiency CALP rather than the possibility of inappropriate/ineffective instructional programs or biased assessment textbooks and assessment practices.